We continue our Lenten series on Fleming Rutledge’s outstanding book, The Crucifixion: Understanding the Death of Jesus Christ (2015).
We are in the final theme in the book – that of recapitulation.
I freely admit that a post or two cannot do justice to a long chapter, much of which traces the thought of Paul in Romans.
This post is breaking in to Rutledge’s discussion of how recapitulation is preached.
To summarise, recapitulation can be seen as “Christ reliving the story of Adam.” (558). As a real human being (incarnation)
“The Son of God secures our redemption, not over against us as a divine being, but restoring our human nature to the righteousness of God from within the depths of our unrighteousness.” (588)
None of this is dependent on us, but on Jesus’ own righteousness.
Rutledge quotes T. F Torrance’s work The Mediation of Christ here (he is the quote within this quote)
‘… we are not saved by any will or any decision of our own. Our rebellious, egocentric, and disloyal human wills have been established “on an entirely different basis by being replaced at the crucial point by Jesus Christ himself.”’ (558-59)
So, if you are a preacher and teacher, how do you preach the good news of the cross? And specifically the theme that ‘all that is Christ’s becomes ours’?
Unevangelical versus evangelical Preaching
Torrance talks about ‘unevangelical preaching’ “which emphasizes human acting and deciding, and true, ‘evangelical preaching’.” (559). Rutledge quotes Torrance at length and with approval. It is worth doing the same and asking some questions as we do so …
What is your response to what Torrance says here? Exciting? Liberating? Troubling?
How does this compare to preaching you hear regularly?
Does it ‘over-do’ divine action and minimise the role of human faith and repentance in salvation?
“From beginning to end what Jesus Christ has done for you he has done not only as God, but as man. He has acted in your place in the whole range of your human life and activity, including your personal decisions, and your response to God’s love, and even your acts of faith. He has believed for you, fulfilled your human response to God, even made your personal decision for you, so that he acknowledges you before God as one who has already responded to God in him, who has already believed in God through him, and whose personal decision is already implicated in Christ’s self-offering to the Father, in all of which he has been fully and completely accepted by the Father, so that in Jesus Christ you are already accepted in him.
[I]t is not upon my faith, my believing, or my personal commitment that I rely, but solely upon what he has done for me, in my place and on my behalf, and what he is and always will be as he stands in for me before the face of the Father.” (559, Rutledge’s added emphasis to highlight Torrance’s use of recapitulation, incorporation, substitution and participation).
In the first paragraph, the theological point being hammered home is that ‘my faith’ is NOT what ‘saves me’ – it is only and completely the work of the incarnate Christ on the cross.
A personal comment on depressing preaching
The gospel calls for a personal response of faith and repentance; this must not be lost. But I like where Torrance is going even if I am not sure I’d go all the way with him.
I have been around a while and there have been too many sermons I’ve heard in my life (and probably preached as well) by the end of which I have ended up feeling frankly depressed!
The thrust has been ‘it all depends on us’: ‘if only we can grasp this’; this experience or that advance ‘is within our reach’; I have discovered this and ‘you can too’ and so on.
Even though God’s grace is talked about, the actual sub-text is that for it to be effective, it is really all up to us / me.
It all adds up to rather exhausting moral exhortation – hence my depression.
The focus is switched from what Christ has done (theo-centric focus), to what I must do if I am to ‘get it’ (andro-centric focus). It almost becomes a form of Gnosticism that we talked about at the start of this series – a secret route to enlightenment for the few and a second-class Christianity for those further back down the path somewhere.
Whereas the preaching of the Christian life, it seems to me, is more like ‘be who you already are in Christ’.
The focus is off ourselves and on Jesus’ completed cross-work: this is the good news and it is theo-centric through and through.
Comments, as ever, welcome.